Processo para especificação de requisitos de software com foco de aplicação em trabalho cooperativo [thesis]

Vagner Luiz Gava
todo o apoio, incentivo, aprendizado e orientação no desenvolvimento desta pesquisa e dos artigos publicados. À Dra. Leda Leal Ferreira, pelos ensinamentos sobre Análise Coletiva do Trabalho em todas as oportunidades que me recebeu na FUNDACENTRO. À Dra. Uiara Montedo, por suas valiosas contribuições durante a qualificação. Aos Professores Doutores Marcelo Pessôa e Fernando Laurindo pelo apoio e incentivo. Ao pessoal do Grupo GTI e Elabsoft, pela solidariedade e aprendizado adquiridos, em
more » ... dquiridos, em especial, Rodrigo pela parceria em nossas pesquisas e Ivelise e Lidia, pela atenção e suporte dispensados. Ao IPT, por proporcionar a oportunidade única de realizar este estudo. Agradeço, em particular, ao Dr. Walter Furlan pelo apoio neste último ano. A todos aqueles que, de forma direta ou indireta, contribuíram para a consecução deste objetivo, meus sinceros agradecimentos. "Nenhum homem é uma ilha; qualquer homem é uma parte do todo. A morte de qualquer homem me diminui, porque faço parte da humanidade; assim, nunca procures saber por quem dobram os sinos: eles dobram por ti." John Donne (1572-1631) Palavras-chave: Análise Coletiva do Trabalho. Requisitos de Software. Modelos mentais. Trabalho cooperativo apoiado por computador. Mente coletiva ABSTRACT Users' work in information systems is a social activity that involves people groups cooperating to perform many different functions. The nature of cooperation itself is complex and depends on the people involved, on the workplace environment and on the organization in which the work develops. Aspects related to the users' cooperative work are not considered in the traditional approach of software engineering, since the user is viewed independently of his/her workplace environment or group, with the individual model generalized to the study of collective behavior of all users. This work proposes a process for software requirements to address issues involving cooperative work in information systems that provide distributed coordination in the users' actions and the communication among them occurs indirectly through the data entered while using the software. To achieve this goal, this research uses ergonomics, cognition and software engineering concepts. Research-action is used as a research methodology applied in three cycles during the development of a corporate workflow system in a technological research company. In the first cycle, the proposed process exposes the definition of the problem domain requirements and the users' individual contributions. In the second cycle, the contributions of the group (their actions and inter-relationships) are considered together with the individual contributions through the simulation of the proposed solution. In the third cycle, the process deals with the refinement of the cooperative work requirements with the software in actual use in the workplace. The results at the end of cycle 2 and the beginning of cycle 3 during the process application in the field show the need for process improvement. This is necessary because the inclusion of a computer system changes the users" workplace, from the face to face interaction to the interaction mediated by the software. The results show that the highest degree of users' awareness as the interrelationship of their activities are carried out contributes to a decrease in their individual errors, reducing software recoding rework and above all the inappropriate use of the system, avoiding the spread of the consequences of these errors in the final results of the group work.
doi:10.11606/t.3.2009.tde-12082010-123943 fatcat:acx4ajiqlvgc3k6wkgvphywrxq