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Over the past decade, governments at all levels have begun to explore "open" information technologies: open-source software, open standards requirements, and open data initiatives. However, the strategic decisions associated with "open" are not as straightforward for the public sector as they are for the private sector, which can effectively evaluate available solutions based on their associated costs and benefits. By contrast, government IT decisions involve additional motivations and<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1758296">doi:10.2139/ssrn.1758296</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/bbjenlycenhljhtoptpvjny4ky">fatcat:bbjenlycenhljhtoptpvjny4ky</a> </span>
more »... , and must take into account less easily quantified benefits such as transparency and improvements to public welfare. In this paper, we examine the motivations and outcomes of governments' moves toward "open," comparing initiatives launched in Brazil, France, Germany, Massachusetts, and Vancouver. We interviewed stakeholders and decision makers involved with these case studies, and we analyzed their very different approaches to making IT decisions. Our research shows that the conversation has moved beyond "open versus closed" software -and that, in fact, the term "open" in the context of IT decision-making is fraught with ambiguity and multiple interpretations. Based on these findings, we developed a framework for bringing transparency to the decision-making process itself by articulating the motives, choices, and tradeoffs associated with IT purchasing decisions. Finally, we conclude that the most effective moves toward "open" government are not related to traditional software-purchasing decisions; instead, openness in government has become more about transparency and availability of information than about which systems enable that transparency.
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