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Scientists today collect, analyze, and generate TeraBytes and PetaBytes of data. These data are often shared and further processed and analyzed among collaborators. In order to facilitate sharing and data interpretations, data need to carry with it metadata about how the data was collected or generated, and provenance information about how the data was processed. This chapter describes metadata and provenance in the context of the data lifecycle. It also gives an overview of the approaches toarXiv:1005.2643v1 fatcat:c6q3rxat65eplg66kh3dqv3k6a