An Intelligent Parking Management System for Urban Areas

Juan Vera-Gómez, Alexis Quesada-Arencibia, Carmelo García, Raúl Suárez Moreno, Fernando Guerra Hernández
2016 Sensors  
In this article we describe a low-cost, minimally-intrusive system for the efficient management of parking spaces on both public roads and controlled zones. This system is based on wireless networks of photoelectric sensors that are deployed on the access roads into and out of these areas. The sensors detect the passage of vehicles on these roads and communicate this information to a data centre, thus making it possible to know the number of vehicles in the controlled zone and the occupancy
more » ... ls in real-time. This information may be communicated to drivers to facilitate their search for a parking space and to authorities so that they may take steps to control traffic when congestion is detected. In this article we describe a low-cost, minimally-intrusive system for the efficient management of parking spaces on both public roads and controlled zones. This system is based on wireless networks of photoelectric sensors that are deployed on the access roads into and out of these areas. The sensors detect the passage of vehicles on these roads and communicate this information to a data centre, thus making it possible to know the number of vehicles in the controlled zone and the occupancy levels in real-time. This information may be communicated to drivers to facilitate their search for a parking space and to authorities so that they may take steps to control traffic when congestion is detected. The article is structured as follows: a selection of related studies is described in the second section, to provide context for our proposed system. The third section describes the system, explaining its general architecture, its main constituent elements, and the method developed to detect the passage of vehicles. Tests to verify system operation are described in the fourth section and, finally, the main conclusions are presented in section five. Related Studies Various authors have looked at developing sensor-based technological solutions to improve the use of parking spaces. According to Bagula [5], intelligent vehicle parking space management systems may be classified according to the type of sensor detection. He distinguishes the systems that only monitor the entry or exit of vehicles from the parking area from the systems that are able to detect whether each parking space is occupied or free. Systems belonging to the first type are easier to deploy and less expensive, appropriate for monitoring the occupancy levels of large outdoor parking areas. Systems belonging to the second type provide more useful and more detailed information to users and may be combined with positioning and guidance services to help locate the available spaces. This type of system is used in indoor parking spaces and is more complex and expensive than the entry and exit monitoring systems, as it requires that each parking space is equipped with sensors and a more sophisticated communications infrastructure. Various parking space management system proposals are described below. Tang [6] proposed a wireless sensor network deployed in indoor car parks that shows the occupancy status of each parking space. Motes (sensor nodes) equipped with acoustic and light sensors are located in each space, and periodically notify whether the space is occupied or available. Benson [7] also proposed a network-based wireless sensor system. A communication link is established by ZigBee and the electromagnetic sensors were developed specifically for this system. Lin [8] proposed a vision-based parking management system to manage an outdoor car park using cameras set up around the parking space, sending information, including real-time display, to the ITS centre database. A scientific solution based on a GPS-based vehicle navigation system and the past and current status of the car park was proposed by Pullola [9], who modelled the availability of a car park using the Poisson process. The author also proposed an intelligent algorithm which helps the driver choose the parking space with the highest probability of being vacant. Lee [10] proposed a combination of magnetic and ultrasonic sensors to control car parks. This system is based on a modified version of the min-max algorithm for detection of vehicles using magnetometers and an algorithm for ultrasonic sensors. Srikanth [11] proposed an intelligent parking management system, consisting of a wireless network that uses different types of sensors to detect the presence of a vehicle in every one of the parking spaces; moreover, the system informs users and guides them to the location of the available space. The network's sensor nodes communicate by radio frequency. Yoo [12] described a system, called S3, which is deployed in school zones, which is designed to detect and register vehicles driving at excessive speeds or parked in prohibited zones. This system consists of a wireless sensor network that is divided into two subnetworks: one to detect vehicles parked in prohibited zones and the other to detect vehicles travelling at excessive speeds. The sensors used are Anisotropic Magneto-Resistive (AMR) magnetic sensors, and the wireless communication link is established by ZigBee. Magrini [13] proposed a vision sensors network to monitor available spaces in public car parks, using distributed network nodes to perform the required processing and analysis of images. Chen [14] proposed a
doi:10.3390/s16060931 pmid:27338397 pmcid:PMC4934356 fatcat:gzupoet3orc4fhtb3flijtjfay