Persuasive Technologies for Sustainable Mobility: State of the Art and Emerging Trends

Evangelia Anagnostopoulou, Efthimios Bothos, Babis Magoutas, Johann Schrammel, Gregoris Mentzas
2018 Sustainability  
In recent years, persuasive interventions for inducing sustainable mobility behaviours have become an active research field. This review paper systematically analyses existing approaches and prototype systems as well as field studies and describes and classifies the persuasive strategies used for changing behaviours in the domain of mobility and transport. We provide a review of 44 papers on persuasive technology for sustainable transportation aiming to (i) answer important questions regarding
more » ... he effectiveness of persuasive technology for changing mobility behaviours, (ii) summarize and highlight trends in the technology design, research methods, strategies and theories, (iii) uncover limitations of existing approaches and applications, and (iv) suggest directions for future research. mobility is an active area of research, and numerous systems and implementations exist, aiming to motivate users toward making more eco-friendly choices. Many approaches utilizing different strategies such as behaviour feedback, social comparison, goal-setting, gamification, personalized suggestions, and challenges have been used so far, and new ones are continuously being developed. Similar to the diversity of approaches, the implementation details (e.g., mobile trip planner apps versus web-based systems) are also very divergent. Last but not least, the transportation context, especially the available infrastructure, possible trip alternatives, and costs associated with the different transportation modes, are defined by the targeted area and can vary substantially. Due to this kaleidoscope of influences and variables, both researchers and practitioners may find it difficult to extract the main findings relevant for their own project or research interests. In this paper, we review persuasive system implementations and related pilot studies, aiming to systematize available research results and provide a framework for understanding and interpreting approaches for persuasion in the context of personal mobility. Our review examined papers of the last 15 years, from 2003 to early 2018, and focused on the intersection of the following domains: Persuasive Technologies, Personal and Multi-Modal Mobility and Transport Behavioural Change. This means that we do not include in our analysis related work from transport research that deals with incentives or policies for behavioural change without the use of technology. We focus on persuasive technology that supports travellers to select environmentally friendly modes (i.e., switch from car to public transport, bicycle and walking) and to continue using such modes. Note that we do not include related work that is not grounded on persuasive technologies and for example makes use of incentives or other types of means for nudging users toward sustainable transportation without employing persuasive technologies. The focus of this review is depicted in Figure 1 . Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 22 not through coercion [4] . Persuasive systems addressing behaviour change in the context of personal mobility is an active area of research, and numerous systems and implementations exist, aiming to motivate users toward making more eco-friendly choices. Many approaches utilizing different strategies such as behaviour feedback, social comparison, goal-setting, gamification, personalized suggestions, and challenges have been used so far, and new ones are continuously being developed. Similar to the diversity of approaches, the implementation details (e.g., mobile trip planner apps versus web-based systems) are also very divergent. Last but not least, the transportation context, especially the available infrastructure, possible trip alternatives, and costs associated with the different transportation modes, are defined by the targeted area and can vary substantially. Due to this kaleidoscope of influences and variables, both researchers and practitioners may find it difficult to extract the main findings relevant for their own project or research interests. In this paper, we review persuasive system implementations and related pilot studies, aiming to systematize available research results and provide a framework for understanding and interpreting approaches for persuasion in the context of personal mobility. Our review examined papers of the last 15 years, from 2003 to early 2018, and focused on the intersection of the following domains: Persuasive Technologies, Personal and Multi-Modal Mobility and Transport Behavioural Change. This means that we do not include in our analysis related work from transport research that deals with incentives or policies for behavioural change without the use of technology. We focus on persuasive technology that supports travellers to select environmentally friendly modes (i.e., switch from car to public transport, bicycle and walking) and to continue using such modes. Note that we do not include related work that is not grounded on persuasive technologies and for example makes use of incentives or other types of means for nudging users toward sustainable transportation without employing persuasive technologies. The focus of this review is depicted in Figure 1 .
doi:10.3390/su10072128 fatcat:vejz7gamufahddupim25njhycu