Increase in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility among clinical Streptococcus pyogenes in Belgium during 2007-10
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Objectives: To study the temporal evolution of fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility among Streptococcus pyogenes during 2007 -10 in Belgium. Methods: S. pyogenes (n¼ 4690) recovered from patients with tonsillopharyngitis or skin, wound or invasive infections were screened for fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility. A selection of fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible strains was investigated for resistance mechanisms: reserpine-sensitive efflux and mutations in topoisomerase genes parC and gyrA. Clonality
... nd gyrA. Clonality was determined by emm typing. Results: Fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility (ciprofloxacin MIC ≥2 mg/L) was identified in 535 (11.4%) of 4690 S. pyogenes recovered during 2007-10 in Belgium. The proportion of fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible S. pyogenes increased significantly from 4.3% (2008) to 10.9% (2009) to 21.6% (2010) and coincided with a significant increase in emm6 strains among fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible S. pyogenes. Ciprofloxacin MICs of 2 -8 mg/L correlated with first-step ParC substitutions. Two high-level fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pyogenes strains (ciprofloxacin MICs 32 mg/L) showed second-step substitutions in GyrA (Ser-81 Phe or Tyr) in addition to first-step mutations in parC. Reserpine-sensitive efflux was not observed. Conclusions: We report an unprecedented increase in fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible S. pyogenes in Belgium, a country with high quinolone use, as well as emergence of two high-level fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pyogenes strains with second-step mutations in gyrA, warning us of the need for more prudent use of fluoroquinolones and for continued resistance surveillance.