BONE MARROW EXAMINATION- A TWO-YEAR STUDY AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences
BACKGROUND The incidence of haematological diseases is quite alarming in Indian population. The commonest presenting symptom in most of these conditions is anaemia. Apart from peripheral blood examination bone marrow analysis plays a crucial role in diagnosis, confirmation of the diagnosis and in follow-up of treatment. Many a times bone marrow examination forms the key to diagnose a non-haematological condition also. Aims and Objectives-The present study was carried out to identify the
... dentify the frequency of various causes leading to bone marrow evaluation of a patient in our setup. The data was analysed and the bone marrow aspiration findings were interpreted. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective descriptive study carried out at the Upgraded Department of Pathology, Osmania General Hospital, a tertiary care centre for a period of two years from July 2015 to June 2017. Bone marrow aspiration along with biopsies wherever required for suspected haematological disorders were carried out on 220 cases during the study period. Leishman stained slides were retrieved and examined. RESULTS Pancytopenia was the most common indication for bone marrow aspiration. Out of 220 cases of bone marrow aspiration, megaloblastic anaemia was seen in 75 cases (34.1%), dual deficiency anaemia in 47 cases (21.4%) and erythroid hyperplasia in 23 cases (10.4%). 15 cases (6.8%) were diagnosed as acute leukaemia. There were 14 cases (6.4%) of ITP, 8 cases (3.6%) of ITP with megaloblastic anaemia, 12 cases (5.4%) of hypoplastic marrow and 12 cases (5.4%) of microcytic anaemia. Bone marrow was normal in 6 cases (2.7%). Reactive plasmacytosis was seen in 4 cases (1.8%) and one case of multiple myeloma was reported. Bone marrow metastasis and storage disorder involving marrow were seen in 2 cases (0.9%) and 1 case (0.45%) respectively. CONCLUSION Bone marrow examination plays a vital role in arriving at a confirmatory diagnosis in many of the benign and malignant haematological disorders. Nutritional anaemias, haematological malignancies and immune thrombocytopenias can be readily diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration alone, whereas hypoplastic anaemias require further workup.