Interaction of impurity atoms in Bose-Einstein condensates

Alexander Klein, Michael Fleischhauer
2005 Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics  
The interaction of two spatially separated impurity atoms through phonon exchange in a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied within a Bogoliubov approach. The impurity atoms are held by deep and narrow trap potentials and experience level shifts which consist of a mean-field part and vacuum contributions from the Bogoliubov-phonons. In addition there is a conditional energy shift resulting from the exchange of phonons between the impurity atoms.
doi:10.1103/physreva.71.033605 fatcat:ht6l36ielveeteaits45gjbymi