Yield and Quality of Essential Oils in Hemp Varieties in Different Environments
Due to its possible utilization in cosmetics, medicine and crop protection, as a valuable alternative to petrochemical-derived products, hemp essential oil is now considered a product with high value added and a promising marketing potential. This experiment was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of four different locations of Northern Italy during two years (four environments) and three hemp monoecious varieties on the production and quality of essential oils (EOs) obtained by
... Os) obtained by inflorescences harvested at full flowering of female flowers. The highest inflorescence yield was obtained at Maiano 2017, where a superficial groundwater layer (1.5 m) was present, with values that ranged from 1.69 of Fedora to 2.06 t ha−1 of Futura. EOs production ranged between 3.4 and 4.9 L ha−1, affected mainly by the variety effect. The terpene in EOs, very similar between varieties and environments, was mainly composed of sesquiterpenes (caryophillene and humulene, as the most abundant) rather than monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-myrcene and trans-β-ocimene, in particular). Phytocannabinoids, and in particular cannabidiol (CBD), were not removed from tissues by the steam during hydrodistillation, and if this is confirmed by further experiments, the residual biomass, now considered as waste, could assume significant importance as a source for further utilization.