Implicit Human-Centered Tagging

A. Vinciarelli, N. Suditu, M. Pantic
2009 2009 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo  
Tagging is the annotation of multimedia data with user-specified keywords known as tags, with the aim of facilitating fast and accurate data retrieval based on these tags. In contrast to this process, also referred to as Explicit Tagging, Implicit Human-Centered Tagging (IHCT) refers to exploiting the information on user's nonverbal reactions (e.g., facial expressions like smiles or head gestures like shakes) to multimedia data, with which he or she interacts, to assign new or improve the
more » ... ng tags associated with the target data. Thus, implicit tagging allows that a data item gets tagged each time a user interacts with it based on the reactions of the user to the data (e.g., laughter when seeing a funny video), in contrast to explicit tagging paradigm in which a data item gets tagged only if a user is requested (or chooses) to associate tags with it. As nonverbal reactions to observed multimedia are displayed naturally and spontaneously, no purposeful explicit action (effort) is required from the user; hence, the resulting tagging process is said to be "implicit" and "human-centered" (in contrast to being dictated by computer and being "computer-centered"). Tags obtained through IHCT are expected to be more robust than tags associated with the data explicitly, at least in terms of generality and statistical reliability. To wit, a number of human behaviors are universally displayed and perceived -e.g., basic emotions like happiness, disgust and fear -and these could be associated to IHCT tags such as "funny" and "horror", which would make sense to everybody (generality) and would be sufficiently represented (statistical reliability). EXPLICIT TAGGING Tagging has emerged in the last years in social media sites where the users are not only passive consumers of data, but active participants in the process of creating, diffusing, sharing, and assessing the data delivered through Internet websites [7] . These sites allow users to assign keywords (explicit tags) to the data that are then used for indexing and retrieval purposes. Tagging represents a major novelty with respect to previous data retrieval approaches because, for the first time, the indexing stage (i.e., the representation of the data in terms suitable for the retrieval process) is not computer-centered, that is, performed through a fully automatic process driven solely by technological criteria, but human-centered,
doi:10.1109/icme.2009.5202770 dblp:conf/icmcs/VinciarelliSP09 fatcat:fi2eriepa5g2xiqo7raaghdvmu