The Roles of IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23 in the Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastrointestinal Inflammation: A Review

Astri Dewayani, Kartika Afrida Fauzia, Ricky Indra Alfaray, Langgeng Agung Waskito, Dalla Doohan, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Abdurachman Abdurachman, Takashi Kobayashi, Reny I'tishom, Yoshio Yamaoka, Muhammad Miftahussurur
2021 Toxins  
Although millions of people have been infected by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), only a small proportion of infected individuals will develop adverse outcomes, ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric cancer. Advanced development of the disease has been well-linked with chronic inflammation, which is significantly impacted by the adaptive and humoral immunity response. From the perspective of cellular immunity, this review aims to clarify the intricate axis between IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23 in
more » ... IL-21, and IL-23 in H. pylori-related diseases and the pathogenesis of inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. CD4+ helper T (Th)-17 cells, with the hallmark pleiotropic cytokine IL-17, can affect antimicrobial activity and the pathogenic immune response in the gut environment. These circumstances cannot be separated, as the existence of affiliated cytokines, including IL-21 and IL-23, help maintain Th17 and accommodate humoral immune cells. Comprehensive understanding of the dynamic interaction between molecular host responses in H. pylori-related diseases and the inflammation process may facilitate further development of immune-based therapy.
doi:10.3390/toxins13050315 pmid:33924897 fatcat:mchsgq4t6jbqjpkpcpym4rah5q