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After a brief review of the evolution of the steel industry during the past 25 years, some basic definitions are presented, including that of industrial ecology, advanced materials, and "green" materials. Then, we discuss the environmental problems that are inherently associated with both conventional and novel steel processing technologies, touching on pollution control, waste minimization and recycling. The important conclusion is reached that whenmoderntechnologies are empioyed, steel isdoi:10.2355/isijinternational.36.121 fatcat:4cpho4cujja7hbdetpnsbeglda