Lung histopathological findings in fatal pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

N. Nin, C. Sánchez-Rodríguez, L.S. Ver, P. Cardinal, A. Ferruelo, L. Soto, A. Deicas, N. Campos, O. Rocha, D.H. Ceraso, M. El-Assar, J. Ortín (+3 others)
2012 Medicina Intensiva  
Objective: To describe the lung pathological changes in influenza A (H1N1) viral pneumonia. We studied morphological changes, nitro-oxidative stress and the presence of viral proteins in lung tissue. Methods and patients: Light microscopy was used to examine lung tissue from 6 fatal cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viral pneumonia. Fluorescence for oxidized dihydroethydium, nitrotyrosine, inducible NO synthase (NOS2) and human influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) (for analysis under confocal
more » ... under confocal microscopy) was also studied in lung tissue specimens. Results: Age ranged from 15 to 50 years. Three patients were women, and 5 had preexisting medical conditions. Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was present in 5 cases (as evidenced by hyaline membrane formation, alveolo-capillary wall thickening and PMN infiltrates), and interstitial fibrosis in one case. In the fluorescence studies there were signs of oxygen radical generation, increased NOS2 protein and protein nitration in lung tissue samples, regardless of the duration of ICU admission. Viral NP was found in lung tissue samples from three patients. Type I pneumocytes and macrophages harbored viral NP, as evidenced by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Conclusions: Lung tissue from patients with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viral pneumonia shows histological findings consistent with DAD. Prolonged nitro-oxidative stress is present despite antiviral treatment. Viral proteins may remain in lung tissue for prolonged periods of time, lodged in macrophages and type I pneumocytes. sonda de dihidroetidio oxidado, óxido nítrico sintasa inducible (NOS2), anti-3-nitrotirosina y nucleoproteína (NP) del virus de la influenza A (H1N1). Resultados: (1) En 5 casos se encontró daño alveolar difuso (DAD), evidenciado mediante la observación de membranas hialinas, engrosamiento de la pared alveolo-capilar e infiltración de PMN, asociado con hemorragia intensa en un paciente. Un caso presentó fibrosis intersticial. (2) Se demostró en todos los casos aumento de la inmuno-reactividad para DHE oxidado, NOS2 y 3-nitrotirosina independientemente de la duración de la estancia en la UCI. (3) Se encontró NP viral en tres pacientes. (4) El virus se localiza en los neumocitos tipo I y en macrófagos alveolares. Conclusiones: El tejido pulmonar de pacientes fallecidos con neumonía por virus de la influenza A (H1N1) evidencia hallazgos histológicos compatibles con DAD. El estrés nitro-oxidativo prolongado está presente a pesar del tratamiento antiviral. Las proteínas virales pueden permanecer en el tejido pulmonar durante períodos prolongados de tiempo, albergándose en los macrófagos y neumocitos tipo I.
doi:10.1016/j.medin.2011.10.005 pmid:22154847 fatcat:kzzeuyoblzhgpexwagv3xsykhe