Role of Adipokines in Cardiovascular Disease

Wayne Bond Lau, Koji Ohashi, Yajing Wang, Hayato Ogawa, Toyoaki Murohara, Xin-Liang Ma, Noriyuki Ouchi
2017 Circulation Journal  
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the greatest cause of death, accounting for nearly one-third of all deaths worldwide. The increase in obesity rates over 3 decades is widespread and threatens the public health in both developed and developing countries. Obesity, the excessive accumulation of visceral fat, causes the clustering of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, culminating in the development of CVD. Adipose tissue is not only an energy storage organ,
more » ... ergy storage organ, but an active endocrine tissue producing various biologically active proteins known as adipokines. Since leptin, a central regulator of food intake and energy expenditure, was demonstrated to be an adipose-specific adipokine, attention has focused on the identification and characterization of unknown adipokines to clarify the mechanisms underlying obesity-related disorders. Numerous adipokines have been identified in the past 2 decades; most adipokines are upregulated in the obese state. Adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and resistin are pro-inflammatory, and exacerbate various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, a small number of adipokines, including adiponectin, are decreased by obesity, and generally exhibit antiinflammatory properties and protective functions against obesity-related diseases. Collectively, an imbalance in the production of pro-and antiinflammatory adipokines in the obese condition results in multiple complications. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiologic roles of adipokines with cardiovascular protective properties.
doi:10.1253/circj.cj-17-0458 pmid:28603178 fatcat:6rjlldpcbze63o4gin6ffnbazu