Reduction in cardiovascular mortality following severe hypoglycemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the role of a pragmatic and structured intervention

Sam M. Pearson, Beverley Whittam, Kavita Kulavarasalingam, Amelia Mitchell-Gears, Cathyrn James, Ramzi A. Ajjan
2021 Cardiovascular Diabetology  
Background Mortality in individuals with diabetes with severe hypoglycemia requiring ambulance services intervention is high and it is unclear whether this is modifiable. Our aim was to characterise this high-risk group and assess the impact of nurse-led intervention on mortality. Methods In this single centre study, patients with diabetes and hypoglycemia requiring ambulance call out were randomized to nurse led support (intensive arm) or managed using existing pathways (standard arm). A third
more » ... group agreed to have their data collected longitudinally (observational arm). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality comparing intensive with combined standard and observational arms as well as standard arm alone. Results Of 828 individuals identified, 323 agreed to participate with 132 assigned to intensive, 130 to standard and 61 to observational arms. Mean follow up period was 42.6 ± 15.6 months. Mortality in type 1 diabetes (n = 158) was similar across study arms but in type 2 diabetes (n = 160) this was reduced to 33% in the intensive arm compared with 51% in the combined arm (p = 0.025) and 50% in the standard arm (p = 0.06). Cardiovascular deaths, the leading cause of mortality, was lower in the intensive arm compared with combined and standard study arms (p < 0.01). Conclusions Medium-term mortality following severe hypoglycemia requiring the assistance of emergency services is high in those with type 2 diabetes. In individuals with type 2 diabetes, nurse-led individualized intervention reduces cardiovascular mortality compared with standard care. Large-scale multicentre studies are warranted to further investigate this approach. Trial registration The trial was retrospectively registered on with reference NCT04422145
doi:10.1186/s12933-020-01204-3 pmid:33435992 fatcat:uyh5kqi25zebzdacurccry2dby