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This review of electrical resistance standards begins with a description of classical standard resistors and their limitations. Methods of comparing resistance are described; these include bridges based on cryogenic current comparators capable of achieving statistical uncertainties approaching one part in 10 10 in the measurement of resistance ratios. Such reproducibility is nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than the overall uncertainty of the most accurate determinations of the ohm fromdoi:10.1063/1.1149062 fatcat:igip6zzopvg7dkd6vr55vqrsq4