Astaxanthin Inhibits p70 S6 Kinase 1 Activity to Sensitize Insulin Signaling
Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid with therapeutic values on hyperglycemia and diabetic complications. The mechanisms of action of AST remain incompletely understood. p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)S1101 and desensitizes the insulin receptor (IR). Our present study aims to determine if AST improves glucose metabolisms by targeting S6K1. Western blot analysis revealed that AST inhibited the phosphorylation of two S6K1
... bstrates, S6S235/236 and IRS-1S1101, but enhanced the phosphorylation of AKTT308, AKTS473, and S6K1T389 by feedback activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. In vitro kinase assays revealed that AST inhibited S6K1 activity with an IC50 value of approximately 13.8 μM. AST increased insulin-induced IR tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1 binding to the p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase. Confocal microscopy revealed that AST increased the translocation of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane in L6 cells. Glucose uptake assays using a fluorescent dye, 2-NBDG (2-N-(Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose), revealed that AST increased glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes under insulin resistance conditions. Our study identifies S6K1 as a previously unrecognized molecular target of AST and provides novel insights into the mechanisms of action of AST on IR sensitization.