«Appearance algorithm» – the comprehensive program of craniofacial reconstruction
«Алгоритм внешности» – комплексная программа антропологической реконструкции

Elizaveta V. Veselovskaya, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology RAS, Russian State University for Humanities
2018 Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin (Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seria XXIII. Antropologia)  
Введение Ëèöî ÷åëîâåêà ÿâëÿåòñÿ îäíîé èç îñíîâíûõ õàðàêòåðèñòèê ëè÷íîñòè, îïðåäåëÿþùèõ åå èíäèâèäóàëüíîñòü. Îãðîìíîå ðàçíîîáðàçèå ëèö, ñâîéñòâåííîå ÷åëîâåêó, îò÷åòëèâî âûäåëÿåò ëþäåé èç îñòàëüíîãî ìèðà aeèâûõ ñóùåñòâ. Äèàïàçîí èçìåí-÷èâîñòè ìíîãèõ àíòðîïîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðèçíàêîâ ó ÷åëîâåêà âûðàaeåí ðåç÷å, ÷åì ó îáåçüÿí è äðóãèõ ìëå-êîïèòàþùèõ [Áóíàê, 1959]. Èìåííî ïðèçíàêè ãîëîâû ïîëîaeåíû â îñíîâó àíòðîïîëîãè÷åñêîé êëàññèôèêàöèè ÷åëîâå÷åñòâà. ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû âíåøíîñòü ÷åëîâåêà ïðèîáðåòàåò âñå
more » ... èîáðåòàåò âñå áîëüøóþ çíà÷èìîñòü â íàó÷íûõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ ðàçëè÷íûõ äèñöèïëèí. Ïðèìåðîì ìîaeåò ñëóaeèòü êîëëåêòèâíàÿ ìîíîãðàôèÿ «Ëèöî ÷åëîâåêà â íàóêå, èñêóññòâå è ïðàêòèêå», ïîäãîòîâëåííàÿ âåäóùèìè ñïåöèàëèñòàìè ðàçëè÷íûõ îáëàñòåé çíàíèé [Ëèöî ÷åëîâåêà ..., 2015]. Ââåäåíèå. Ìåòîä âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ëèöà ïî ÷åðåïó, ïîñòàâëåííûé íà íàó÷íóþ îñíîâó ðîññèéñêèì ó÷åíûì Ì.Ì. Ãåðàñèìîâûì, íàõîäèò øèðîêîå ïðèìåíåíèå â ðàçëè÷íûõ îáëàñòÿõ íàóêè è ïðàêòèêè. Ðàáîòû ïî óòî÷íåíèþ è ñîâåðøåíñòâîâàíèþ ìåòîäà ïðîäîëaeàþòñÿ. Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäû. Íà çíà÷èòåëüíîì ñòàòèñòè÷åñêîì ìàòåðèàëå áûë ðàçðàáîòàí ìåòîäè-÷åñêèé ïîäõîä «Àëãîðèòì âíåøíîñòè», ïîçâîëÿþùèé ïîëó÷àòü ðàçìåðíûå è îïèñàòåëüíûå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè ãîëîâû íà îñíîâå ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ïàðàìåòðîâ ÷åðåïà. Ïî ñïåöèàëüíîé ïðîãðàììå àíòðîïîëîãè÷åñêîé ðåêîíñòðóêöèè ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ìåòîäà ïàëüïàòîðíîé ìàðêèðîâêè îòäåëüíûõ òî÷åê ñêåëåòà íà aeèâîì ëèöå áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû ãðóïïû ñîâðåìåííîãî íàñåëåíèÿ, åâðîïåîèäíîãî, ìîíãîëîèäíîãî è ñìåøàííîãî ïðîèñõîaeäåíèÿ (îêîëî 2 òûñ. ÷åëîâåê). ïðîãðàììó èññëåäîâàíèé áûë âêëþ÷åí òàêaeå àíàëèç àíòðîïîëîãè÷åñêèõ ôîòîãðàôèé. ×àñòü èç íèõ ïîçâîëÿåò ïîëó÷èòü àáñîëþòíûå ðàçìåðû, òàê êàê ñíèìêè âûïîëíÿëè ñ ìàñøòàáíîé ëèíåéêîé. Èçìåðåíèÿ ïðî÷åð÷åííûõ îðáèò, à òàêaeå âûñîòû è øèðèíû ãëàçíîé ùåëè ïðîâîäèëè èìåííî íà òàêèõ ôîòîãðàôèÿõ, ïîñêîëüêó äëÿ ïîëó÷åíèÿ óðàâíåíèé ðåãðåññèè íåîáõîäèìû àáñîëþòíûå çíà÷åíèÿ ðàçìåðîâ. Ðåçóëüòàòû. ×àñòü ðàçìåðîâ ãîëîâû ïîëó÷àþò ïóòåì ïðèáàâëåíèÿ òîëùèíû ìÿãêèõ òêàíåé ê ÷åðåïíîìó ðàçìåðó. Äðóãèå ðàññ÷èòûâàþò íà îñíîâå óðàâíåíèé ðåãðåññèè, ãäå íåçàâèñèìîé îñíîâîé ÿâëÿåòñÿ êðàíèîìåòðè÷åñêèé ïàðàìåòð. Ïðåäëîaeåíû èíäåêñû, õàðàêòåðèçóþùèå ïðîïîðöèè ãîëîâû. Ïðåäñòàâëåíû ãðàíèöû èõ êàòåãîðèé (áîëüøîé, ñðåäíèé, ìàëûé) äëÿ åâðîïåîèäîâ (íà îñíîâå ðóññêèõ è ëèòîâöåâ) è ìîíãîëîèäîâ (íà îñíîâå áóðÿò) äëÿ ìóae÷èí è aeåíùèí îòäåëüíî. Îòíåñåíèå èíäèâèäóàëüíûõ çíà÷åíèé èíäåêñîâ ê êàòåãîðèÿì ïîçâîëÿåò ñîñòàâèòü îïèñàíèå ïðèaeèçíåííîãî îáëèêà. Ïðåäñòàâëåíû âàðèàíòû ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ êà÷åñòâåííûõ îïèñàòåëüíûõ ïðèçíàêîâ ãîëîâû è ÷åðåïà. Çàêëþ÷åíèå. Èñïîëüçîâàíèå «Àëãîðèòìà âíåøíîñòè» ïîçâîëÿåò âîññòàíàâëèâàòü ïðèaeèçíåííûé îáëèê öåëîãî ðÿäà ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé êîíêðåòíûõ ïîïóëÿöèé è íå îáÿçàòåëüíî â âèäå ñêóëüïòóðíûõ èëè ãðàôè÷åñêèõ ïîðòðåòîâ. Âîçìîaeíî ïîëó÷åíèå áëàíêîâ ïðèaeèçíåííûõ ðàçìåðîâ è îïèñàòåëüíûõ õàðàêòåðèñòèê. Ñîïîñòàâëåíèå ðåçóëüòàòîâ òàêîé ðåêîíñòðóêöèè ñ ñîâðåìåííûì íàñåëåíèåì ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ òåððèòîðèé âîîðóaeàåò àíòðîïîëîãîâ íîâûìè èíñòðóìåíòàìè äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ âîïðîñîâ ýòíîãåíåçà, àäàïòàöèè ïîïóëÿöèé, ýïîõàëüíîé èçìåí÷èâîñòè. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ýòíîãåíåç; àíòðîïîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ðåêîíñòðóêöèÿ âíåøíîñòè; ìîðôîëîãèÿ ëèöà è ÷åðåïà; ñëîâåñíûé ïîðòðåò; åâðîïåîèäû; ìîíãîëîèäû Introduction. Craniofacial reconstruction allows us to learn how people of the last eras looked. Russian scientist M.M. Gerasimov developed the scientific method of anthropological facial reconstruction that is now used in different areas of science and technology. Materials and methods. Based on large material we created a new program -"Appearance Algorithm" -that allows reconstructing sizes and descriptive characteristics of the head based on the corresponding skull parameters. About 2000 Caucasian, Mongoloid, and mixed people have been examined using a special program for anthropological reconstruction with palpation marking of skeletal points on the face. Research program also included analysis of anthropological photos. Measurements of the drawn orbits, heights and width of a palpebral fissure were carried out in such photos as absolute values are necessary for receiving the regression equations. Results. Part of the head sizes is calculated by adding soft facial tissue thickness to the cranial size. Other sizes are calculated using regression equations where an independent basis is a craniometric parameter. In this article indexes characterizing head proportions are presented. Indexes variations (big, medium, small) are presented for Caucasians and Mongolians for men and women separately. Reference of individual indexes values to categories allows creating the description of lifetime appearance. Compliance variants of qualitative descriptive characteristics of the head and skull are presented. Discussion. Use of the program "Appearance Algorithm" allows reconstructing the appearance of a number of different specific populations as well as lifetime head sizes and descriptive characteristics. Comparison of such results with the modern population can help in studying ethnogenesis, an adaptation of populations, epoch-making variability.
doi:10.32521/2074-8132.2018.2.038-054 fatcat:3w7dfs32gfhxpiw64rxiyt7ada