Polyalthia Clerodane Diterpene Potentiates Hypoglycemia via Inhibition of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4

Po-Kai Huang, Shian-Ren Lin, Jirawat Riyaphan, Yaw-Syan Fu, Ching-Feng Weng
2019 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Serine protease dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is involved in self/non-self-recognition and insulin sensitivity. DPP-4 inhibitors are conventional choices for diabetic treatment; however, side effects such as headache, bronchus infection, and nasopharyngitis might affect the daily lives of diabetic patients. Notably, natural compounds are believed to have a similar efficacy with lower adverse effects. This study aimed to validate the DPP-4 inhibitory activity of clerodane diterpene
more » ... roda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (HCD) from Polyalthia longifolia, rutin, quercetin, and berberine, previously selected through molecular docking. The inhibitory potency of natural DPP-4 candidates was further determined by enzymatic, in vitro Caco-2, and ERK/PKA activation in myocyte and pancreatic cells. The hypoglycemic efficacy of the natural compounds was consecutively analyzed by single-dose and multiple-dose administration in diet-induced obese diabetic mice. All the natural-compounds could directly inhibit DPP-4 activity in enzymatic assay and Caco-2 inhibition assay, and HCD showed the highest inhibition of the compounds. HCD down-regulated LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation in myocyte but blocked GLP-1 induced PKA expression. For in vivo tests, HCD showed hypoglycemic efficacy only in single-dose administration. After 28-days administration, HCD exhibited hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective efficacy. These results revealed that HCD performed potential antidiabetic activity via inhibition of single-dose and long-term administrations, and could be a new prospective anti-diabetic drug candidate.
doi:10.3390/ijms20030530 fatcat:3dgxfvqxe5e63bigkhklv7i7ve