Survey of the Application Nanoscale Material in Chemical Sensors [chapter]

Mahboubeh Masrournia, Zahra Ahmadabadi
2012 Advances in Chemical Sensors  
Sensors and sensor arrays for the detection of chemical and biological substances have attracted much attention in recent years. The ultimate goal is to fabricate sensors that can determine the presence of a wide range of substances at relevant concentration levels with sufficient selectivity and sensitivity. Such research would ultimately produce technology that could be applicable in many segments including food processing, environment alremediation, agriculture, medical diagnostics and
more » ... e. The main requirements besides selectivity and sensitivity are fast response, low fabrication costs, robustness and portability. Hence intensive research activities around the world are focused on developing new sensing materials and technologies (Fam et al., 2011 , Sinh et al., 2006 . With the development of nanotechnology, there is a growing demand for advanced electronics based on functional nanomaterials. To date, various nanomaterials have been investigated from both fundamental and practical perspectives, and their unique chemical and physical characteristics have been continuously discovered. Important characteristics and the quality parameters of nanosensors can be improved over the case of classically modeled sensors merely reduced in size. Nanostructure sensors 2.1 Carbon nanotube sensors Since discovery, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (in 1991) have been extensively explored for numerous applications. Of all the nanomaterials reported, carbon-based nanomaterials like fullerenes, graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) show a huge potential in bringing sensor technology to the next level. Of these carbonaceous materials, CNT stand out as the most promising material for deployment in electronic sensing platforms due to its superior chemical and electronic properties. Furthermore, CNT possess a great potential for being employed both as a part of the transducer element as well as a functional receptor element in an electronic device. Despite the potential associated with CNT-based sensors, the efforts devoted to commercialization are still being limited by the challenges involved in CNT synthesis and device fabrication. Over the years, several attempts have been made to address these issues, for example, controlled synthesis of CNT. Although the scientific breakthroughs are numerous in this area, much of the CNT sensor research still remains at a
doi:10.5772/31191 fatcat:f2xzdvwslnc53jwdow75arn5ra