MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms in Breast Cancer, Gliomas and Gastric Cancer: A Review

Igor Petrone, Paula Sabbo Bernardo, Everton Cruz dos Santos, Eliana Abdelhay
2021 Genes  
Folate (vitamin B9) is found in some water-soluble foods or as a synthetic form of folic acid and is involved in many essential biochemical processes. Dietary folate is converted into tetrahydrofolate, a vital methyl donor for most methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme in the folate metabolism pathway that converts 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate into 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which produces a methyl donor for the
more » ... ethyl donor for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. MTHFR polymorphisms result in reduced enzyme activity and altered levels of DNA methylation and synthesis. MTHFR polymorphisms have been linked to increased risks of several pathologies, including cancer. Breast cancer, gliomas and gastric cancer are highly heterogeneous and aggressive diseases associated with high mortality rates. The impact of MTHFR polymorphisms on these tumors remains controversial in the literature. This review discusses the relationship between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the increased risk of breast cancer, gliomas, and gastric cancer. Additionally, we highlight the relevance of ethnic and dietary aspects of population-based studies and histological stratification of highly heterogeneous tumors. Finally, this review discusses these aspects as potential factors responsible for the controversial literature concerning MTHFR polymorphisms.
doi:10.3390/genes12040587 pmid:33920562 fatcat:nqgnkra3lvagdou2gn3pt3n3wq