Comparative analysis of macrophage post-translational modifications during intracellular bacterial pathogen infection
Macrophages activate robust antimicrobial functions upon engulfing virulent bacteria, yet a wide array of pathogens paradoxically thrive within these innate immune cells. To probe the pathogen-macrophage interface, we used proteomics to comprehensively quantify changes in post-translational modifications (PTMs) of host proteins during infection with three evolutionarily diverse intracellular pathogens: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria
... isteria monocytogenes. Comparing global phosphorylation and ubiquitylation patterns identified extensive reprogramming of cellular pathways during infection, with ubiquitylation patterns revealing unique pathogen-specific molecular response signatures undetectable by transcriptional profiling. Differential PTM changes during infection with attenuated M. tuberculosis cells lacking the ESX-1 virulence determinant revealed extensive modification of phagosome dynamics and antiviral type I interferon activation. We found that M. tuberculosis-mediated activation of the antiviral OASL1-IRF7 pathway promotes bacterial replication, uncovering a new mechanism of virus-bacterial synergy. Our data reveals remarkable specificity in innate cellular responses to complex stimuli and provides a resource for deeper understanding of host-pathogen interactions.