Efficiency Degradation Model of Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles
IEEE transactions on industry applications
The purpose of this paper is to analyse efficiency degradation of lithium-ion batteries. Two lithiumion cell technologies are considered under calendar ageing. It is well known that ageing mechanisms have an impact in cells' performances. Most of studies focus on capacity fade and impedance rise but efficiency is less frequently studied. However, from the application point of view, battery efficiency degradation directly impacts the system energy efficiency. Results reveal the importance of
... e importance of considering battery ageing in the design phase of electric vehicles, not only for capacity but also for efficiency reasons: efficiency degradation depends of the technology, so when comparing two technologies one must take into account the cells' performances not just when cells are fresh but during the whole lifespan. Another finding reported in this paper is the high correlation between capacity fade and energy efficiency for the tested technologies. Finally, two empirical models for energy efficiency degradation were developed in both technologies: the first one is based on Eyring relationships and the second one lies on the existing correlation between capacity fade and efficiency. Quality of each model is reported for both model types and battery technologies.