Climate Variability and the U.S. Corn Belt: ENSO and AO Episode-Dependent Hydroclimatic Feedbacks to Corn Production at Regional and Local Scales*
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) climatology (1980-Belt using state climate division weather and historic corn yield data using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation analysis. Findings provide insight to agroclimatic conditions under different ENSO and AO episodes and are analyzed with a perspective for potential impacts to agricultural production and planning, with findings being developed into a web-based tool for the U.S. Corn Belt. This study is unique
... n that it utilizes the oceanic Niño index and explores two teleconnection patterns that influence weather across different spatiotemporal scales. It is found that the AO has a more frequent weak to moderate correlation to historic yields than ENSO when correlated by average subgrowing season index values. Yield anomaly and ENSO and AO episode analysis affirms the overall positive impact of El Niño events on yields compared to La Niña events, with neutral ENSO events in between as found in previous studies. Yields when binned by the AO episode present more uncertainty. While significant temperature and precipitation impacts from ENSO and AO are felt outside of the primary growing season, correlation between threshold variables of episode-specific temperature and precipitation and historic yields suggests that relationships between ENSO and AO and yield are present during specific months of the growing season, particularly August. Overall, spatial climatic variability resulting from ENSO and AO episodes contributes to yield potential at regional to subregional scales, making generalization of impacts difficult and highlighting a continued need for finescale resolution analysis of ENSO and AO signal impacts on corn production.