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An undulator designed to be used for an x-ray free electron laser has to meet a set of stringent requirements. With no optical cavity, an x-ray FEL operates in the single pass Self Amplfied Spontaneous Emission (SASE) mode; an electron macropulse is microbunched by an undulator and the radiation it creates. The microbunched pulse emits spontaneous radiation and coherent FEL radiation, whose power may reach saturation in a sufficiently long and perfect undulator. The pulse must have lowdoi:10.1063/1.54589 fatcat:ej7bnwalkvfsjl6e6pxhsqzo5e