Prevalence of gastrospirillum-like organisms in pigs, cattle, and dogs: a comparison of diagnostic methods between species
A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of spiral-shaped bacteria in animals as a possible source of pathogens causing chronic changes in the human and animal stomach as well as in other parts of the digestive tract. This study was carried out in three different groups of animals, pigs, cattle and dogs. Swabs from the oral cavity of dogs (<I>n</I> = 198) were stained using Gram's method to evaluate gastrospirillum-like organisms (GLOs) and revealed two different types of GLOs with an
... pes of GLOs with an incidence of 23.2% (46/198). The stomachs of the pigs (<I>n</I> = 104), cattle (<I>n</I> = 102), and dogs (<I>n</I> = 7) were collected for the urease test, brush cytology, light and electron microscopy, and PCR. A positive urease test was observed in 31.7% (33/104) of pigs, 90.2% (92/102) of cattle, and 85.7% (6/7) of dog samples. GLOs were detected in 37.5% (39/104) of pigs, 62.7% (64/102) of cattle, and 85.7% (6/7) of dog samples by brush cytology. Furthermore, positive PCR results were obtained in the stomach samples of dogs that had tested positive by both the urease test and brush cytology. The morphological study using brush cytology and scanning electron microscopy of a pig stomach revealed bacteria with the typical morphology of GLOs, which appeared to be similar to <I>Helicobacter heilmanii</I>. This study indicates that the urease test and brush cytology are useful tools for diagnosing GLOs in different animals. Moreover, the location of specimen collection can influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the examination.