Impact of Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Multicenter Study of 18,028 Patients
OBJECTIVE Physical activity (PA) can improve cardiovascular risk in the general population and in patients with type 2 diabetes. Studies also indicate an HbA 1c -lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. Since reports in patients with type 1 diabetes are scarce, this analysis aimed to investigate whether there is an association between PA and glycemic control or cardiovascular risk in subjects with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 18,028 adults ( ‡18 to <80 years
... ( ‡18 to <80 years of age) from Germany and Austria with type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) database were included. Patients were stratified according to their self-reported frequency of PA (PA0, inactive; PA1, one to two times per week; PA2, more than two times per week). Multivariable regression models were applied for glycemic control, diabetes-related comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data were adjusted for sex, age, and diabetes duration. P values for trend were given. SAS 9.4 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS An inverse association between PA and HbA 1c , diabetic ketoacidosis, BMI, dyslipidemia (all P < 0.0001), and hypertension (P = 0.0150), as well as between PA and retinopathy or microalbuminuria (both P < 0.0001), was present. Severe hypoglycemia (assistance required) did not differ in PA groups (P = 0.8989), whereas severe hypoglycemia with coma was inversely associated with PA (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS PA seemed to be beneficial with respect to glycemic control, diabetes-related comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk factors without an increase of adverse events. Hence, our data underscore the recommendation for subjects with type 1 diabetes to perform regular PA.