Budget-Driven Scheduling of Scientific Workflows in IaaS Clouds with Fine-Grained Billing Periods
ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems
With the advent of cloud computing and the availability of data collected from increasingly powerful scientific instruments, workflows have become a prevailing mean to achieve significant scientific advances at an increased pace. Scheduling algorithms are crucial in enabling the efficient automation of these large-scale workflows, and considerable effort has been made to develop novel heuristics tailored for the cloud resource model. The majority of these algorithms focus on coarse-grained
... coarse-grained billing periods that are much larger than the average execution time of individual tasks. Instead, our work focuses on emerging finer-grained pricing schemes (e.g., per-minute billing) that provide users with more flexibility and the ability to reduce the inherent wastage that results from coarser-grained ones. We propose a scheduling algorithm whose objective is to optimize a workflow's execution time under a budget constraint; quality of service requirement that has been overlooked in favor of optimizing cost under a deadline constraint. Our proposal addresses fundamental challenges of clouds such as resource elasticity, abundance, and heterogeneity, as well as resource performance variation and virtual machine provisioning delays. The simulation results demonstrate our algorithm's responsiveness to environmental uncertainties and its ability to generate high-quality schedules that comply with the budget constraint while achieving faster execution times when compared to state-ofthe-art algorithms.