A Review and Analysis of Trends Related to Demand Response

Luis Arias, Edwin Rivas, Francisco Santamaria, Victor Hernandez
2018 Energies  
This paper provides a review and analysis of trends related to demand response (DR). The authors have considered six different topics for the analysis of DR trends: Users, Network Services, Markets, Complementary Programs and Distributed Energy Resources (DER). A brief summary of the consulted articles is included and the behavior of the different DR trend-related topics is shown up to the year 2017 and their projections for 2020. As a result, the characterization of the main DR topics is
more » ... ed as well as its current and future trends. Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that the topic of complementary programs is a trendsetter for current trends and it is expected that there is a future change of focus towards the users and new services. The expansion of DR programs is a developing trend for the future of electric networks according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). The response to the user's energy demand is a key factor in the global reduction of the consumption. It is stated that in rational and efficient consumption scenarios the world's primary energy demand in 2035 could be reduced to half of the budgeted share [6]. The possibility for users to control their consumption in real time and make decisions referring to energy management, i.e., acquire energy from different companies or participate in DR mechanisms based on supply per fee where users acquire energy from the distributors by paying integral fees that included a fixed quota determined by the contracted power and a variable amount related to the consumption which is published in official bulletins of the State and periodically updated. Users can also adopt other DR mechanisms, based on incentives that use time as a basis. Some variables related to this strategy are Time of Use, Price in real time and Critical Price in Peak Hours. Some incentive-based mechanisms include direct control of the load, Interruptible load services, Programs of voluntary disconnection of the load, DR economic programs, emergency programs and auxiliary service programs [7] . This decision-making process on behalf of the users is typically allowed in liberalized energy markets of Europe and USA [8]; However, some regulated markets also allow it [9] . In the research field, some authors tackle DR from the remuneration, complementary programs and inclusion of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) [10] . In [11] the analysis focuses on the economic trends of DR programs while [12] [13] [14] , focus on the planning of networks based on the DR resources. Finally, authors such as [12, 15, 16] work on DR programs in smart grids. The demand response can be framed within a wider development line in networks called Demand-side Management (DSM). DSM can be interpreted as a series of measures to improve the overall energy on the consumer side. Some of these measures include improving energy efficiency through the use of better materials and technologies for the energy's end-use, designing smart energy fees with incentives for certain consumption habits, and the implementation of complex real-time control systems that involve distributed energy resources [17] . This article is organized as follows: in the first section, the introduction gives an overview of energy consumption from 1935 to 2035 and justifies the rise of DR and the management of energy resources in general as a development perspective for electrical networks. The second section shows the subjects taking into consideration in the analysis of DR trends such as: Remuneration, Users, Energy Markets, Complementary programs and Distributed energy resources. The third section discusses the behavior of different topics related to the analysis of DR over the last years, in terms of the developed research. A forecast on the future evolution of those topics is also detailed. In the fourth
doi:10.3390/en11071617 fatcat:hddnkdkzvvac7mqxwybezwlzj4