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: Testosterone is a fundamental biological drive for human survival. Evidence documents an association between the evolutionary suppression of testosterone and the civilization processes, especially their socialization and family colonization abilities, among early humans. Interestingly, opiates suppress testosterone as a side effect. However, in clinical practice, clients undergoing opioid substitution therapy have subnormal, normal, or even above-normal testosterone. This paper discusses adoi:10.5812/ijpbs.114491 fatcat:26otyjcjg5hvvo6gyv3tivnpd4