An Alternative Approach to Detecting Cancer Cells by Multi-Directional Fluorescence Detection System Using Cost-Effective LED and Photodiode
Kyoungrae Cho, Jeong-hyeok Seo, Gyeongyong Heo, Se-woon Choe
The enumeration of cellular proliferation by covering from hemocytometer to flow cytometer is an important procedure in the study of cancer development. For example, hemocytometer has been popularly employed to perform manual cell counting. It is easily achieved at a low-cost, however, manual cell counting is labor-intensive and prone to error for a large number of cells. On the other hand, flow cytometer is a highly sophisticated instrument in biomedical and clinical research fields. It
... s detailed physical parameters of fluorescently labeled single cells or micro-sized particles depending on the fluorescence characteristics of the target sample. Generally, optical setup to detect fluorescence uses a laser, dichroic filter, and photomultiplier tube as a light source, optical filter, and photodetector, respectively. These components are assembled to set up an instrument to measure the amount of scattering light from the target particle; however, these components are costly, bulky, and have limitations in selecting diverse fluorescence dyes. Moreover, they require multiple refined and expensive modules such as cooling or pumping systems. Thus, alternative cost-effective components have been intensively developed. In this study, a low-cost and miniaturized fluorescence detection system is proposed, i.e., costing less than 100 US dollars, which is customizable by a 3D printer and light source/filter/sensor operating at a specific wavelength using a light-emitting diode with a photodiode, which can be freely replaceable. The fluorescence detection system can quantify multi-directional scattering lights simultaneously from the fluorescently labeled cervical cancer cells. Linear regression was applied to the acquired fluorescence intensities, and excellent linear correlations (R2 > 0.9) were observed. In addition, the enumeration of the cells using hemocytometer to determine its performance accuracy was analyzed by Student's t-test, and no statistically significant difference was found. Therefore, different cell concentrations are reversely calculated, and the system can provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative to commercial hemocytometer for live cell or microparticle counting.