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We study the responses of discretely reproducing populations to periodic fluctuations in three parameters: the carrying capacity and two demographic characteristics of the species. We prove that small 2-periodic fluctuations of the three parameters generate 2-cyclic oscillations of the population. We develop a signature function for predicting the responses of populations to 2-periodic fluctuations. Our signature function is the sign of a weighted sum of the relative strengths of thedoi:10.1080/10236190601078987 fatcat:nnfcwi5mdvgsrah5wymoctw6hu