From Asia to Europe: to the Question of Ways of Distributing one of the Eastern Musical Instruments
Від Азії до Європи: до питання про шляхи поширення одного зі східних музичних інструментів

O. Diadechko
2017 The Oriental Studies  
The article deals with the problem of the origin and spread of the jew's harp -an ancient musical instrument. In spite of a number of special studies in the field of organology, there are no works in Ukrainian historiography devoted to this problem. This is due, among other things, to the complexity of the attribution and dating of the archaeological finds of the jew's harp. Researchers still do not come to a final conclusion regarding the time and place of occurrence of the jew's harp, as well
more » ... as ways of its spread. Nevertheless, they recognize the obvious fact that it appeared in Asia, where it still remains a popular musical instrument associated with cults and rituals. In modern Europe, the jew's harp is also known, but as an ensemble folklore instrument accompanying dances and entertainment. The earliest and simplest jew's harps were made from organic materialswood, bamboo or bone. They appeared in Asia approximately in the 1 st c. BC. Later, metal harps spread. Their distribution was accompanied by the development from simple forms to more complex ones. The most perfect in design and capabilities is considered to be the heteroglottic iron jew's harp. In Europe, heteroglottic jew's harps appear in a developed form in the Middle Ages. In this case, the oldest finds of this type of instruments in Eastern Europe are earlier. The oldest find of the heteroglottic jew's harp in the context of the culture of the Eastern Slavs dates back to the 9-10 th centuries. In Western Europe, such instruments are known only from the XIII century. The appearance of jew's harps in Eastern Europe can be associated with the resettlement from the east of the bearers of the tradition of jew's harp music with subsequent cultural influence on the local population. 10 th century is the time of appearance of Turkic tribes in the Black Sea steppes. Probably, it was Від Азії до Європи: до питання про шляхи поширення... The Oriental Studies, 2017, № 80 69 from these settlers from the East that the Slavs borrowed the tradition of playing the jew's harp. Subsequently, this tradition spread further to the West.
doi:10.15407/skhodoznavstvo2017.80.068 fatcat:ioiaykotfrb2bojckiow6nxd3m