Relation between two-phase quantum walks and the topological invariant

Takako Endo, Norio Konno, Hideaki Obuse
We study a position-dependent discrete-time quantum walk (QW) in one dimension, whose time-evolution operator is built up from two coin operators which are distinguished by phase factors from x ≥ 0 and x ≤ −1. We call the QW the complete two-phase QW to discern from the two-phase QW with one defect [15, 16]. Because of its localization properties, the two-phase QWs can be considered as an ideal mathematical model of topological insulators which are novel quantum states of matter characterized
more » ... topological invariants. Employing the complete two-phase QW, we present the stationary measure, and two kinds of limit theorems concerning localization and the ballistic spreading, which are the characteristic behaviors in the long-time limit of discrete-time QWs in one dimension. As a consequence, we obtain the mathematical expression of the whole picture of the asymptotic behavior of the walker, including dependences on initial states, in the long-time limit. We also clarify relevant symmetries, which are essential for topological insulators, of the complete two-phase QW, and then derive the topological invariant. Having established both mathematical rigorous results and the topological invariant of the complete two-phase QW, we provide solid arguments to understand localization of QWs in term of topological invariant. Furthermore, by applying a concept of topological protections, we clarify that localization of the two-phase QW with one defect, studied in the previous work [15], can be related to localization of the complete two-phase QW under symmetry preserving perturbations.
doi:10.18880/00014026 fatcat:ycgszngpofds7g6iafnseqm2te