Copper Sulfide Remobilization and Mineralization during Paleoproterozoic Retrograde Metamorphism in the Tongkuangyu Copper Deposit, North China Craton

Xuan Liu, Kuifeng Yang, Brian Rusk, Zhengjie Qiu, Fangfang Hu, Jacques Pironon
2019 Minerals  
The Tongkuangyu copper deposit, North China Craton, is hosted in a volcano-sedimentary sequence (ca. 2.2 Ga) that metamorphosed to the lower amphibolite facies at ca. 1.9 Ga. Petrographic observations revealed various metamorphic fabrics (mineral alignment and foliations) and several generations of biotite, chlorite, and pyrite. Sulfide Pb-Pb dating indicates that copper mineralization occurred at 1960+46/−58 Ma, younger than the zircon U-Pb age of the host metatuff (2180 Ma to 2190 Ma), but
more » ... to 2190 Ma), but close to the timing of regional metamorphism (ca. 1.9 Ga). Electron probe analyses show that the biotites belong to the magnesium-rich variety, and were formed at 470 to 500 ° C based on Ti-in-biotite thermometry. Chlorites belong to ripidolite and pycnochlorite, and were formed at ca. 350 ° C based on the Al geothermometer. Pyrites in porphyry, metatuffs, and quartz veins have contrasting Ni and Co concentrations, pointing to a local remobilization. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses suggest that biotite and chlorite were formed by metamorphic waters whereas quartz records much lower δ D f l u i d values, reflecting the influence of meteoric water. Fluid inclusions in pyrite and chalcopyrite in metatuff and quartz vein contain extremely radiogenic 4 He and 40 Ar, indicating a crustal origin for the fluids. Sulfides show a magmatic sulfur isotopic signature, likely indicating the presence of preexisting volcanism-related sulfides. We proposed that the early layered copper sulfides formed during metamorphic retrogression at ca. 1.9 Ga and the late vein-type sulfides were derived from the remobilization of the earlier sulfides by infiltration of external fluids such as residual seawater and metamorphic fluids at shallow level.
doi:10.3390/min9070443 fatcat:tt5dwqkn35gqlf56o6rybl6sym