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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/4srzxifvfrdlhjhg3dimznkp7m" style="color: black;">BMC Genomics</a>
Some mobile genetic elements target the lagging strand template during DNA replication. Bacterial examples are insertion sequences IS608 and ISDra2 (IS200/IS605 family members). They use obligatory single-stranded circular DNA intermediates for excision and insertion and encode a transposase, TnpA IS200 , which recognizes subterminal secondary structures at the insertion sequence ends. Similar secondary structures, Repeated Extragenic Palindromes (REP), are present in many bacterial genomes.<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-4836-1">doi:10.1186/s12864-018-4836-1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29914351">pmid:29914351</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC6006769/">pmcid:PMC6006769</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/3l65u4sxojfhnnrgq4o22m2zqm">fatcat:3l65u4sxojfhnnrgq4o22m2zqm</a> </span>
more »... A IS200 -related proteins, TnpA REP , have been identified and could be responsible for REP sequence proliferation. These proteins share a conserved HuH/Tyrosine core domain responsible for catalysis and are involved in processes of ssDNA cleavage and ligation. Our goal is to characterize the diversity of these proteins collectively referred as the TnpA Y1 family. Results: A genome-wide analysis of sequences similar to TnpA IS200 and TnpA REP in prokaryotes revealed a large number of family members with a wide taxonomic distribution. These can be arranged into three distinct classes and 12 subclasses based on sequence similarity. One subclass includes sequences similar to TnpA IS200 . Proteins from other subclasses are not associated with typical insertion sequence features. These are characterized by specific additional domains possibly involved in protein/DNA or protein/protein interactions. Their genes are found in more than 25% of species analyzed. They exhibit a patchy taxonomic distribution consistent with dissemination by horizontal gene transfers followed by loss. The tnpA REP genes of five subclasses are flanked by typical REP sequences in a REPtron-like arrangement. Four distinct REP types were characterized with a subclass specific distribution. Other subclasses are not associated with REP sequences but have a large conserved domain located in C-terminal end of their sequence. This unexpected diversity suggests that, while most likely involved in processing single-strand DNA, proteins from different subfamilies may play a number of different roles. Conclusions: We established a detailed classification of TnpA Y1 proteins, consolidated by the analysis of the conserved core domains and the characterization of additional domains. The data obtained illustrate the unexpected diversity of the TnpA Y1 family and provide a strong framework for future evolutionary and functional studies. By their potential function in ssDNA editing, they may confer adaptive responses to host cell physiology and metabolism.
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