Involvement of Huntingtin in Development and Ciliary Beating Regulation of Larvae of the Sea Urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
The multiple functions of the wild type Huntington's disease protein of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (Hp-Htt) have been examined using the anti-Hp-Htt antibody (Ab) raised against synthetic oligopeptides. According to immunoblotting, Hp-Htt was detected as a single band at around the 350 kDa region at the swimming blastula stage to the prism larva stage. From the 2-arm pluteus stage (2aPL), however, an additional smaller band at the 165 kDa region appeared. Immunohistochemically,
... ohistochemically, Hp-Htt was detected in the nuclei and the nearby cytoplasm of the ectodermal cells from the swimming blastula stage, and the blastocoelar cells from the mid-gastrula stage. The Ab-positive signal was converged to the ciliary band-associated strand (CBAS). There, it was accompanied by several CBAS-marker proteins in the cytoplasm, such as glutamate decarboxylase. Application of Hp-Htt morpholino (Hp-Htt-MO) has resulted in shortened larval arms, accompanied by decreased 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridin (BrdU) incorporation by the ectodermal cells of the larval arms. Hp-Htt-MO also resulted in lowered ciliary beating activity, accompanied by a disordered swirling pattern formation around the body. These Hp-Htt-MO-induced deficiencies took place after the onset of CBAS system formation at the larval arms. Thus, Hp-Htt is involved in cell proliferation and the ciliary beating pattern regulation signaling system in pluteus larvae.