Factors Influencing Nursing Students' Empowerment: A Literature Review
Tahany Fareed Al-Niarat, Fathieh Abumoghli
Open Journal of Nursing
Aim: The purpose of this literature review is to locate the available literature that addresses the factors influencing the nursing students' empowerment. Background: Nursing students' empowerment is an essential element to enhance the learning process. Nursing students' learning experiences in the classroom and in the clinical placement play vital role in their empowerment. Data Source: A review of relevant literature using the following databases: CINAHL, ERIC & EBSCO. Methods: A literature
... view of, peer-reviewed research, Master/PhD dissertations full text and published on the listed databases between (2003-2019) was done. Results: A final review of 16 studies was included, quantitative and qualitative studies that discussed the factors that may affect nursing students' empowerment were included in this review. Conclusion: Viewed articles revealed that nursing students' empowerment may be affected by many factors. According to previous literature and according to the authors' perspective, the retrieved articles categorized as followings: intrapersonal empowerment, learner orientation to learning, teaching-learning experiences, and the learning environment that influencing the learners' empowerment. 1241 Open Journal of Nursing empowerment as "the act of strengthening an individual's belief in his or her sense of effectiveness". According to Chandler  empowerment means "enable to act" and "enabling individuals to feel effective so they can successfully execute their jobs". Additionally, Kanter  proposed that the organizational conditions act positively on an individual's internal motivation and his/her intent to be empowered. The organizational conditions described by Kanter as the accessibility to resources, opportunity, information, and support. Without these conditions, the individual would not accomplish the desired organizational outcomes. Empowerment is a combination of organizational empowerment and psychological empowerment. Psychological empowerment is intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioural . Zimmerman & Warschausky proposed that controlling and using the organizational resources effectively support and enhance the intrapersonal empowerment. Spreitzer  expanded Kanter's categorized organizational empowerment into an intrapersonal empowerment conceptualization and operationalization. Intrapersonal empowerment is cognitive in nature. The components of intrapersonal empowerment are the confidence: the individuals perceive themselves confident of their skills and tasks they perform. The meaningfulness: the individuals' goals are matching the organizational goals, so they become aware of the importance and the meaning of their actions. The impact: the individuals' understand that they have an impact within their context . In last decades nursing researchers paid attention to the concept of empowerment to enhance nursing outcomes, particularly in nursing education    . Review Purpose The purpose of this literature review is to illustrate the available literature that addresses the factors influencing the nursing students' empowerment in order to draw out conclusions and recommendations to facilitate students' empowerment. Materials and Methods Search Strategy Searching strategies in this study were based on an electronic database, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), EBSCO, Google scholar industries from (2003)(2004)(2005)(2006)(2007)(2008)(2009)(2010)(2011)(2012)(2013)(2014)(2015)(2016)(2017)(2018)(2019). Keywords used in this study for searching were empowerment, nursing students, nursing educators, teaching style, learning outcomes, nursing learning, clinical learning, clinical placement, and factors. Boolean operators (AND, OR) have been applied separately and in combination with the key words to expand, combine, or exclude keywords in a search to narrow down the results.