IDENTIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF REFERENCE GENES FOR THE NORMALIZATION IN REAL-TIME RT-QPCR ON RICE AND RED RICE IN COMPETITION, UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN DOSES
Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is an important technique to analyze differences in gene expression due to its sensitivity, accuracy, and specificity. However, before analyzing the expression of the target gene, it is necessary to identify and evaluate the stability of candidate reference genes for the proper normalization. This study aimed at evaluating the stability of candidate reference genes in order to identify the most appropriate genes for the
... nes for the normalization of the transcription in rice and red rice in competition under different nitrogen levels, as well as to demonstrate the effectiveness of the reference gene selected for the expression of the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (OsAPX2). Eleven candidate reference genes were assessed using the RefFinder which integrates the four leading software: geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper, and the comparative delta-Ct method in addition to the analysis of variance to identify genes with lower standard deviation and coefficient of variation values. Eight out of the eleven genes have shown the desired effectiveness and, among them, the gene UBC-E2 has the highest stability according to RefFinder and the analysis of variance. The expression of the gene OsAPX2 has proven to be effective in validating the candidate reference gene. This study is the first survey on the stability of candidate reference genes in rice and red rice in competition, providing information to obtain more accurate results in RT-qPCR.