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In 1971 the first research work on hollow cathode arcs (abbreviated HCA) started at Giessen University. Emphasis has been put on the operation of this hollow cathode arc for the ion beam neutralization of the electric propulsion unit RIT 1 0 . In this application the HCA works as an electron source delivering electrons for main discharge starting and beam neutralization. But beside this, diagnostics have been performed dealing with the physical phenomena of HCA's. Different measurementsdoi:10.1051/jphyscol:19797136 fatcat:wkp6n3uyfjb5tcr4ifd2mq6zee