GIS-analysis of the old-developed region's land use structure for the purposes of ecological framework design (on example of the Belgorod region)
Анализ структуры землепользования староосвоенного региона для целей формирования природно-экологического каркаса с применением ГИС-технологий (на примере Белгородской области)
The Belgorod region is an example of an old-developed region, continuing to experience intense anthropogenic pressure. There are almost no undisturbed landscapes within the boundaries of the region, which have no restrictions to be included into the regional network of protected areas according to their ecological characteristics and legal status. The problem is that the ecological framework of the region is not a functionally and territorially integrated system, which is necessary for its
... tive functioning. The solution of the problem could be implementation of the scheme of ecological framework, developed in 2007 as a part of the territorial development of the region, but it is associated with potential conflicts of land owners rights. In this regard, the paper analyzed the compliance of the ecological framework proposed scheme with the existing land use structure to assess the prospects its practical implementation. The analysis of the anthropogenic pressure on the municipalities of the Belgorod region allowed to identify the model districts (Borisovsky and Gubkinsky) with the maximum and minimum anthropogenic pressure. On the example of selected areas, the prospects of transferring areas within the boundaries of the proposed scheme to the category of protected lands, corresponding to the structural elements of ecological framework were evaluated. The land use structure of the model districts was analyzed using OpenStreetMap resource which allowed to identify the main land categories (settlements, industry, forestry and agricultural lands and protected areas) and differentiate them by the potential of compliance with the proposed framework scheme. Processing the data of various categories lands spatial distribution within the boundaries of the ecological framework in the Borisovsky and Gubkinsky districts using the Quantum GIS program showed that despite the high pressure on the territory it is still possible to implement the proposed scheme. The design of the ecological framework in the old-developed regions should be carried out at the level of municipalities. The conducted research also confirmed the relevance of the legislative framework improvement to ensure environmental protection activities by fixing the legal category "ecological framework".