Cell Wall Integrity Pathway Involved in Morphogenesis, Virulence and Antifungal Susceptibility in Cryptococcus neoformans

Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Suelen Andreia Rossi, Irene García-Barbazán, Óscar Zaragoza, Nuria Trevijano-Contador
2021 Journal of Fungi  
Due to its location, the fungal cell wall is the compartment that allows the interaction with the environment and/or the host, playing an important role during infection as well as in different biological functions such as cell morphology, cell permeability and protection against stress. All these processes involve the activation of signaling pathways within the cell. The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is the main route responsible for maintaining the functionality and proper structure of
more » ... cell wall. This pathway is highly conserved in the fungal kingdom and has been extensively characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there are still many unknown aspects of this pathway in the pathogenic fungi, such as Cryptococcus neoformans. This yeast is of particular interest because it is found in the environment, but can also behave as pathogen in multiple organisms, including vertebrates and invertebrates, so it has to adapt to multiple factors to survive in multiple niches. In this review, we summarize the components of the CWI pathway in C. neoformans as well as its involvement in different aspects such as virulence factors, morphological changes, and its role as target for antifungal therapies among others.
doi:10.3390/jof7100831 pmid:34682253 fatcat:bhrlnoy2kbeo7ntwkkjaq6dpka