Modulation of Insulin-stimulated Degradation of Human Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 by Serine 312 Phosphorylation
Michael W. Greene, Hiroshi Sakaue, Lihong Wang, Dario R. Alessi, Richard A. Roth
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ser/Thr phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is a negative regulator of insulin signaling. One potential mechanism for this is that Ser/Thr phosphorylation decreases the ability of IRS-1 to be tyrosine-phosphorylated by the insulin receptor. An additional mechanism for modulating insulin signaling is via the down-regulation of IRS-1 protein levels. Insulin-induced degradation of IRS-1 has been well documented, both in cells as well as in patients with diabetes. Ser/Thr
... rylation of IRS-1 correlates with IRS-1 degradation, yet the details of how this occurs are still unknown. In the present study we have examined the potential role of different signaling cascades in the insulin-induced degradation of IRS-1. First, we found that inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin block the degradation. Second, knockout cells lacking one of the key effectors of this cascade, the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, were found to be deficient in the insulin-stimulated degradation of IRS-1. Conversely, overexpression of this enzyme potentiated insulin-stimulated IRS-1 degradation. Third, concurrent with the decrease in IRS-1 degradation, the inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin also blocked the insulin-stimulated increase in Ser 312 phosphorylation. Most important, an IRS-1 mutant in which Ser 312 was changed to alanine was found to be resistant to insulinstimulated IRS-1 degradation. Finally, an inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, SP600125, at 10 M did not block IRS-1 degradation and IRS-1 Ser 312 phosphorylation yet completely blocked insulin-stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation. Further, insulin-stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation was not blocked by inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, indicating that c-Jun N-terminal kinase is unlikely to be the kinase phosphorylating IRS-1 Ser 312 in response to insulin. In summary, our results indicate that the insulin-stimulated degradation of IRS-1 via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway is in part dependent upon the Ser 312 phosphorylation of IRS-1.