The Municipium of Brigetio Roman Houses at Komárom / Szőny-Vásártér

Linda Dobosi, László Borhy
2011 Periodica Polytechnica Architecture  
Although the overall topography of Brigetio is more or less clear, as some of the Roman ruins were still visible in the 19th century, not much was known about the civil town, the municipium of Brigetio. The research excavations of 1992-2011 have brought to light the remains of several Roman houses, workshops and two streets. This part of the town was inhabited by the Romans from the very beginning of the 2nd century AD to the second half of the 3rd century AD. At the end of the 2nd century AD
more » ... he 2nd century AD the elongated dwelling houses were fit with hypocaust heating systems and richly decorated with wall paintings. Like other cities in Pannonia, Brigetio also had its most prosperous times under the Severan dynasty. The paper presents the architectural results of the twenty years of archaeological investigation of the site. Keywords Brigetio · municipium · roman houses (domus) · archaeological excavations 1 Topography Roman Brigetio, located on the right side of the Danube, was one of the four legionary bases of Pannonia. As with the others, Carnuntum (Bad Deutsch-Altenburg), Vindobona (Vienna), and Aquincum (Óbuda), Brigetio consisted of three parts: the legionary fort (castra legionis), the canabae legionis and the civil settlement (municipium) (Fig. 1) . The legionary fortress was built opposite the delta of the Vág river to control this strategically important area inhabited by the Quadi. An early earth and timber auxiliary fort was built in the 1st century AD, which was replaced by a stone construction during the reign of Trajan (98-117) or Hadrian (117-138) at the latest. This stone fortress was built for either the legio XI Claudia or the legio I Adiutrix with the contribution of the vexillations of three other legions: the legio XIII Gemina, the legio XIIII Gemina, and the legio XV Apollinaris. The legio XI Claudia was garrisoned in Brigetio from 101 AD to 104 AD, being replaced by the legio XXX Ulpia Victrix from 105 AD to 114 AD. The legio I Adiutrix arrived at Brigetio around 118-119 AD and stayed until the end of the Roman rule in the area [1, 11, 16] . The rectangular-shaped castrum measured about 540x430 m according to the aerial photographs. Not much is known about its internal structure, for one part of the area now lies under the so-called MOLAJ housing estate (built in the 1940s), the other part is under cropland. As far as we can tell, the fortress was destroyed three times. First, in the Marcomannic Wars around 169-172 AD, but it was soon rebuilt during the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161-180). Construction took place also under the rule of and Elagabalus (218-222). Around 293-305 the fortress was destroyed for the second time. After that, at the beginning of the 4th century AD, it was reconstructed in a different shape and much lower quality. Under the rule of Valentinian I the fortress was repaired for the last time. (According to Ammianus Marcellinus, the Emperor died in the very fortress of Brigetio.) Not long after the death of Valentinian I, the fortress was again the victim of a major destruction, never to be rebuilt again [1, 11, 18] .
doi:10.3311/ fatcat:syaz2exp5fdhvkq5ohw6bc2jwe