Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder toward the kidney, is common in young children. About 30% of children with urinary tract infections will be diagnosed with VUR after a voiding cystourethrogram. For most, VUR will resolve spontaneously; 20% to 30% will have further infections, but few will experience long-term renal sequelae. Developmentally, VUR arises from disruption of complex signaling pathways and cellular differentiation. These mechanisms are
... ly genetically programmed but may be influenced by environmental exposures. Phenotypic expression of VUR is variable, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe renal parenchymal disease and end-stage disease. VUR is often familial but is genetically heterogeneous with variability in mode of inheritance and in which gene, or the number of genes, that are involved. Numerous genetic studies that explore associations with VUR are available. The relative utility of these for understanding the genetics of VUR is often limited because of small sample size, poor methodology, and a diverse spectrum of patients. Much, if not all, of the renal parenchymal damage associated with end-stage disease is likely to be congenital, which limits the opportunity for intervention to familial cases where risk prediction may be available. Management of children with VUR remains controversial because there is no strong supportive evidence that prophylactic antibiotics or surgical intervention improve outcomes. Furthermore, well-designed genetic epidemiological studies focusing on the severe end of the VUR phenotype may help define the causal pathway and identify modifiable or disease predictive factors.