Consigli per la didattica: quali principi di apprendimento possiamo applicare nella formazione delle professioni sanitarie?
Research on learning and memory has identified several generic learning principles which have been proven to support efficient and effective study. Although some of these principles have been known for a long time, it seems they have not been used to tap their full potential-particularly in university settings. This article collects and describes seven of these basic learning principles distilled from research literature and discusses how they could be applied by medical teachers in health
... hers in health professions education. In particular, the article emphasizes the necessity of activating students' prior knowledge at the appropriate time and the importance of adapting the level of difficulty of course tasks to the students' level of preparation. It further describes how cumulative review of course material can enhance student learning, how students' comprehension and long term memory can be increased by asking deep, explanatory questions, and how the provision of meaningful contexts can help to anchor information in memory. Finally, the article offers advice on how to make use of the testing effect through frequent formative assessments and how to take advantage of the principle of spaced practice by promoting smaller units of study at regular intervals. The overview and description of these generic principles of learning are intended to enable the reader to reflect on how to make the best use of them in his/her own educational environment. RIASSUNTO La ricerca didattica ha identificato alcuni principi che determinano una maggiore efficacia dell'apprendimen-to. Pur essendo ben noti da tempo, nella pratica didattica universitaria, pare che non vengano spesso consi-derati in tutte le loro potenzialità. In questo articolo ne vengono descritti sette, permettendo al lettore di riflettere in che modo applicarli durante i propri insegnamenti. Parole chiave: pedagogia medica, formazione delle professioni sanitarie, principi di apprendimento