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The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must ensure that on-site worker health and safety is not compromised by airborne radioactive contamination. In addition, the DOE must ensure that effluent air and gas streams leaving DOE sites and waste treatment facilities do not negatively impact public safety or health. Alpha-emitting radioisotopes, such as U-238/U-234 and Pu-239, are rated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as class A carcinogens. Alphaemitting radioisotopes have very lowdoi:10.2172/772474 fatcat:vhuigi5qffba3pbqxjxdih56rm