Material and process limits in silicon VLSI technology

J.D. Plummer, P.B. Griffin
2001 Proceedings of the IEEE  
The integrated circuit (IC) industry has followed a steady path of shrinking device geometries for more than 30 years. It is widely believed that this process will continue for at least another ten years. However, there are increasingly difficult materials and technology problems to be solved over the next decade if this is to actually occur and, beyond ten years, there is great uncertainty about the ability to continue scaling metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)
more » ... s. This paper describes some of the most challenging materials and process issues to be faced in the future and, where possible solutions are known, describes these potential solutions. The paper is written with the underlying assumption that the basic metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor will remain the dominant switching device used in ICs and it further assumes that silicon will remain the dominant substrate material. He is currently a Research Scientist at Stanford University. He has authored or coauthored more than 50 technical papers, coauthored a new textbook on Silicon VLSI Technology, and consults on advanced process technology with industry. His current research interests are aimed at developing atomistic insights into the fabrication process for silicon devices by a mix of experimental and computational methods.
doi:10.1109/5.915373 fatcat:wueeql5vgrecjhpvyondko7pb4