Field evaluation of phostoxin and zinc phosphide for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area, central Iran

A A Akhavan, A Veysi, M H Arandian, H Vatandoost, M R Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M Hosseini, H Abdoli, K Heidari, A Sadjadi, R Fadaei, J Ramazanpour, K Aminian (+2 others)
2014 Journal of Vector Borne Diseases  
ZCL is a growing threat in many rural areas of Iran which involves 17 out of 31 provinces. This study was conducted from April to November 2011 for evaluation of the efficacy of phostoxin and zinc phosphide against rodents. Rodent control operations were carried out using phostoxin and zinc phosphide. To evaluate the effect of rodent control operation on the main vector density, an entomological survey was carried out. The effects of the operation on the disease incidence were also evaluated.
more » ... e also evaluated. After intervention, the reduction rate of rodent burrows was 32.68% in the village treated with phostoxin and 58.14% in the village treated with zinc phosphide. The number of rodent holes in the control area showed 6.66-fold increase at the end of the study. The incidence of the disease decreased to 19.23 and 11.40 in areas treated with phostoxin and zinc phosphide, respectively. A total of 4243 adult sandflies were collected and identified. The most common and dominant species was Phlebotomus papatasi. In the village treated with phostoxin, the density of P. papatasi in outdoors was lower than indoors. Nevertheless, the density of P. papatasi in the village treated with zinc phosphide was higher in outdoors. It is concluded that phostoxin is less effective and has low safety in comparison with zinc phosphide, so that this rodenticide can be used only in special situations such as lack or ineffective rodenticides and only in the colonies far from human and animal dwelling places in small scales.
pmid:25540963 fatcat:zublgbnatnbclltk4xbz2mnlsq