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The lack of interoperability between cellular access networks has long been a challenging burden, which telecommunication engineers and researchers are trying to overcome. In second generation networks for example, this problem lies in the lack of standardization. 3 rd G networks is limited to a few operating modes using different radio transmission technologies that are not interoperable. 4G technology even being successful in its various trials cannot guarantee interoperability. Thedoi:10.4236/jsip.2012.33053 fatcat:bjc4n3r3gvfo3a2yn4qifpax2u